By Wayne H. Bowen
In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, Spain was once a key participant within the army conflagrations that created smooth Europe. From the Napoleonic Wars, during the gown practice session for international warfare II that was once the Spanish Civil battle, to the bleak fight opposed to terrorism at the present time, the army heritage of recent Spain has either formed and mirrored better forces past its borders.
This quantity strains the process Spanish army historical past, basically throughout the twentieth century. bankruptcy 1 presents the root for the function of the Spanish military at domestic (the struggle of Independence [Napoleonic War], the Carlist Wars, and pronunciamientos), in another country (Morocco, 1859-60), and as an device for Liberal reforms in Spain. bankruptcy 2 covers the interval following the Spanish-American conflict because the military redirected its concentration to the Spanish Protectorate in northern Morocco. This bankruptcy covers the Rif uprising (1921-27), the dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera (1923-30) and concludes with the tip of the monarchy and the institution of the second Republic in 1931. Chapters three and four current the 2 armies of the Spanish Civil battle, in addition to their courting to the warring factions of Nationalists and Republicans. bankruptcy five appears to be like on the Spanish military in the course of global struggle II at the japanese entrance (Russia), in its out of the country colonies, in addition to in Spain. De-colonialism is roofed in bankruptcy 6 as Spain, following the lead of the opposite eu powers, started to shed itself of its African empire. bankruptcy eight charts Spain's integration into the Western security neighborhood within the Nineteen Fifties, its club in NATO, and its participation in peacekeeping and humanitarian missions within the Balkans and the center East. bankruptcy nine specializes in Spain's fight opposed to terrorism, either the family Basques of ETA (Fatherland and Liberty) and the more moderen clash opposed to al-Qaeda and radical Islamic fundamentalism.
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Extra info for A Military History of Modern Spain: From the Napoleonic Era to the International War on Terror
Conscript soldiers died abroad in the thousands due to disease and neglect. 1 Geopolitically, the loss of her overseas empire to the United States left Spain with only her Moroccan presidios and claims to territories in the Western Sahara and Equatorial Africa. At a time when overseas possessions were a mark of a great, powerful, and modern nation, Spain had lost most of hers. This international humiliation had a powerful impact on Spain’s psyche as a nation but was most strongly felt within the ranks of the armed forces.
37 Until the last part of the conflict, the Spanish government forces experienced many of the same difficulties they had encountered in earlier wars, such as an inability to engage the enemy except on his own terms, a lack of security and control in rural and mountainous areas, and a political context that severely hindered the ability of commanders to prepare and use their forces effectively. To add to the problems with morale and insubordination already mentioned, in February 1873—while the Carlist War and a long separatist war in Cuba continued—the leaders of the First Republic decided to eliminate the draft and establish an 32 A Military History of Modern Spain all-volunteer force.
Thus, when all was said and done, victory had come not through brilliant counterinsurgency planning or operations, but rather from improvised strategy and attrition. Yet during the course of the conflict, the Spanish Army had experimented with various counterinsurgency tactics, and its operations had improved over time. The question remained, then, what the army would learn from the experience. Did this victory herald institutional change in the Spanish Army? Unfortunately for subsequent Spanish governments, it did not.
A Military History of Modern Spain: From the Napoleonic Era to the International War on Terror by Wayne H. Bowen