By John L. Hayes
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Additional resources for A Manual of Sumerian Grammar and Texts (Aids and Research Tools in Ancient Near Eastern Studies, No 5)
For example, � can mean "a house" or "the house". a(k) forms a "genitive phrase". The formation of the genitive in S umerian is quite different from the formations in Semitic or in Indo-European. In Sumerian, in a genitive phrase consisting of two nouns, the "possessor" follows the "possessed". ak. ak. k). Ikl is one of the amissable consonants discussed under Phonology. As such, when in word-final position, it does not show up in the writing system. As stated above, most Sumerologists believe that the reason such consonants do not appear in writing, is because they were not pronounced.
A second view attempts to make the signs approach the transcription. Since this word is pronounced Ikalaga/, and since the Igal is expressed by the g�-sign, this view says that the first sign must therefore be read Ikala/: kala-g�. Thus, this view really derives the transliteration from the transcription. The third view says that the transliteration should not necessarily be expected to fit the transcription. Rather, there are certain general rules of Sumerian orthography which are found in several different contexts.
Urim. e. The rna-sign reduplicates the final Iml of Urims, and includes the lal of the genitive marker. The ke4 -sign includes the Ikl of the genitive marker, and the I el of the ergative case-marker. Thus, both the rna-sign and the ke4 -sign represent segments of two different morphemes. This use of the ke4 -sign is very frequent; it is the sign normally used for the combination of segments of the genitive marker and the ergative case-marker. Not much is known about the syllabic structure of spoken Sumerian, but it may have been closer to the written form than to the morphological transcription.
A Manual of Sumerian Grammar and Texts (Aids and Research Tools in Ancient Near Eastern Studies, No 5) by John L. Hayes