By Eldon G. Lytle
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Subordinate Structures in English
This is in fact the case: "some professors, who enjoy poetry, are idealistic"15 (of professors, some, who are idealistic, enjoy poetry). On the basis of these observations, the restrictive-nonrestrictive distinction appears reducible to the following selectional options: SOME + Juncture >1 I + ^Suppressed Juncture where SOME is the overt quantifier, and Some is an enclitic article (indefinite). 15 Note that the sentence is ambiguous, depending on whether the relative clause is construed to modify some or professors.
The reader is to construct for himself relative clauses for the nominals followed by a blank. It will be noted that the selection of a restrictive or a nonrestrictive modifier for these is by no means an arbitrary choice. In each case one feels constrained by context to select one over the other. Generally the selections for this set are: a. nonrestrictive; b. restrictive; c. restrictive; d. nonrestrictive; e. nonrestrictive; f. nonrestrictive; g. nonrestrictive. Although it is possible to imagine a context, perhaps, 22 See Bach, 1968, for another approach to the phenomenon we are attempting to describe.
Whether an overt relative sequence occurs or not, r' reduces to 0 during a single act of reference. e. the act of reference, is not completed until r' = 0. One might argue (in order to retain the concept of multiple occurrences of the head noun in the super- and subordinate sentences2) that r diminishes and hence nonrestrictivization does not occur immediately (no value for r being used more than once). This, however, is counter-intuitive as well as untenable - if r has a singular value in the first term of the sequence, how can it possibly diminish?
A Grammar of Subordinate Structures in English by Eldon G. Lytle