By Roderick Hunt, Alex Brychta
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Comparing diachronies of negation 27 (66) Loen. Ma ei loe. ’ (Estonian) (Miestamo 2011: 90) (67) Loed. ’ Sa ei loe. ’ (Estonian) (Miestamo 2011: 90) The extreme development is found in Mansi, where the negative auxiliary has become an invariant particle, at, and the lexical verb inﬂects fully in negative clauses (Miestamo 2005: 218–19). The now-extinct Finnish dialect of Värmland underwent the same development, perhaps under contact with Swedish, using fully ﬁnite verbs alongside an invariant negative particle ei: (68) Ei minä lyö-n sinua.
43) . . pp son the dauphin yroit point en Normandie. 3sg point in Normandy ‘ . . ’ (Jean Chartier, Chronique de Charles VII 101) (Catalani 2001: 362) While such uses have died out in French and Welsh, they remain available in some (southern) dialects of the generally more conservative Catalan, as the following example demonstrates: (44) Que ho volia fer ella pas? ’ (Dialectal Catalan) (Tubau 2008: 250) Finally, in the early stages of Jespersen’s cycle, the new marker of negation always seems to be emphatic, if only in virtue of being a marked option relative to the original negator alone.
The now-extinct Finnish dialect of Värmland underwent the same development, perhaps under contact with Swedish, using fully ﬁnite verbs alongside an invariant negative particle ei: (68) Ei minä lyö-n sinua. ’ (Värmland Finnish) (Miestamo 2011: 97) For further details of all these developments, see Tauli (1966), Honti (1997), Miestamo (2000, 2011). 8 Indeﬁnites: basic concepts Cyclic renewal does not only affect the expression of sentential negation. Indeﬁnites, including both indeﬁnite pronouns such as anything or nothing and indeﬁnite adverbials such as ever or never, are also frequently subject to directional changes which Ladusaw calls the ‘argument cycle’: The development of negation-expressing argument phrases from regular indeﬁnite arguments has the following stages: ﬁrst the argument is a regular indeﬁnite argument, then it becomes a co-occurring ‘supporter’ of the clausal negation, and ﬁnally it becomes an independent expressor of negation.
A Cat in the Tree by Roderick Hunt, Alex Brychta